# Arithmetic » Sum, difference, product and quotient

## Contents

SumDifference

Product

Quotient

## Sum

The sum of two or more numbers is the outcome of adding these numbers.

Example: Calculate the sum of 13, 5 and 8.

Answer: 13 + 5 + 8 = 26

The parts you add are called **terms**.

Example: Which terms are in the formula `y` = 3`x`^{2} + 6`x` + 8?

Answer: Three terms, namely 3`x`^{2}, 6`x` and 8.

## Difference

The difference of two numbers is the outcome of subtracting these numbers.

Example: Calculate the difference of 80 and 14.

Answer: 80 – 14 = 66

The parts you subtrect are also called **terms**.

The terms in the example 80 – 14 are 80 and **–14**.

This is because you can write 80 – 14 as 80 + –14.

Example: Which terms are in the formula `y` = 5`x`^{2} – 4`x` – 8?

Answer: Three terms, namely 5`x`^{2}, –4`x` and –8.

## Product

The product of two or more numbers is the outcome of multiplying these numbers.

Example: Calculate the product of 12 and 7.

Answer: 12 × 7 = 84

The parts you multiply are called **factors**.

Example: Which factors are in the formula `y` = 5`x`(`x` – 4)?

Answer: Three factors, namely 5, `x` and `x` – 4.

### Terms and factors

In formulas you will often come across terms within factors or factors within terms.

*Example 1*

Name the parts of the formula `y` = 7`x`^{2} – 12`x`.

The formula is written as the sum of terms 7`x`^{2} and –12`x`.

the term 7`x`^{2} consists of factors 7 and `x`^{2}.

The term –12`x` consists of factors –12 and `x`.

*Example 2*

Name the parts of the formula `y` = (7`x` – 8)(3`x` + 5).

The formula is written as the product of factors 7`x` – 8 and 3`x` + 5.

The factor 7`x` – 8 consists of terms 7`x` and –8, where term 7`x` consists of factors 7 and `x`.

The factor 3`x` + 5 consists of terms 3`x` and 5, where term 3`x` consists of factors 3 and `x`.

## Quotient

The quotient of two numbers is the outcome of the division of these numbers.

Example: Calculate the quotient of 20 and 4.

Answer: 20 : 4 = 5

In the example above, 20 is called the **dividend** and 4 the **divisor**.